For each variable, the respondents were divided into two groups based on group mean scores, on which Kessler (1993) performed two-tailed t tests. Supervisors with transformational scores greater that 21.5 were categorized as high transformational leaders and those with scores equal to or less than 21.5 were categorized as low transformational leaders. Supervisors with transactional scores greater than 12.9 were categorized as high transactional leaders and the remainder were categorized as low transactional leaders. Supervisors with laissez-faire scores greater than 6.1 were categorized as high laissez-faire leaders and the remainder were categorized as low laissez-faire leaders. Two-tailed t tests were performed on the data at a significance level of p = .05. The study's results indicated that transformational leadership was positively correlated to job satisfaction. This was attributed to transformational leaders facilitating and promoting the intellectual stimulation of their subordinates. Transformational leaders were perceived by their followers as innovators who frequently take alternative courses of action that justifiably break away from established concepts and procedures. These points all fit into the researcher's concept of a research environment. In contrast, transactional leaders were less likely to stimulate subordinates' feelings associated with overall job satisfaction, the work environment, or supervision. Furthermore, the study indicated that more overall job satisfaction was recorded when transactional and transformational leadership facets were combined (Kessler, 1993).
In a study on 1,376 registered nurses, Bycio, Hackett, and Allen (1995) found a positive association between transformational leadership scales and satisfaction with the leader. They found that contingent reward was also positively related to satisfaction with the leader. However, management-by-exception was negatively related to satisfaction with the leader. With regard to the augmentation that transformational leadership generates enhanced levels of follower outcomes, the authors stated that is was clear that transformational leadership or "charismatic leadership, by itself, was the dominant predictor" of satisfaction with the leader (Bycio, Hackett, & Allen, 1995, p. 472).
In a research project carried out in secondary schools in Singapore, Koh,Steers, and Terborg (1995) examined the influence of transformational leader behaviors as they related to organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, teacher satisfaction with leader, and student academic performance. Specific to the transformational leadership - satisfaction relationship, the authors found that transformational leadership behaviors had a significant add-on effect to transactional leadership in the prediction of teacher satisfaction with the leader(Koh & Terborg, 1995).
Russell (1999), in a quantitative non-experimental survey investigated the relationship of transformational and transactional leadership on employee turnover intentions. The research was performed at two large organizations in Florida; one was a financial institution, and the other was a medical center with a combined population of approximately 3,000. The instruments used were the MLQ, and Jackofsky and Slocum's measures of turnover. Jackofsky and Slocum published in the Journal of Occupational Behavior (1987) research describing turnover and turnover intent. They designed scales that measure thoughts of quitting and intent to leave as surrogates of turnover intent. Each scale contains four items rated on a 5 point Likert scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The scale "thoughts of quitting", which is the mental consideration given to leaving, was found to have a reliability of α = 0.83. The scale "intention to quit", the behavioral intention to quit the current job within the next year, was found to have a reliability of α = 0.73.
Russell's (1999) sample consisted of 105 useable responses. He did not perform factor analyses on the data. Two-tailed t tests were performed to determine if there were statistical differences between the means of two groups. Group 1 was higher in the leadership attribute being studied and Group 2 was lower in the leadership attribute being measured. These studies found that transformational leadership was negatively correlated to employee intention to leave. Additionally, the higher the level of contingent reward offered by the manager, the lower the intent to leave, and the higher the passive management by exception, the higher the intent to leave(Russell, 1999).
In another research project, Walumbwa, Orwa, Wang, and Lawler (2005b) examined the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment and job satisfaction. The study was conducted in two countries: Kenya and the United States. Participants were mostly bank tellers in seven banks in Kenya and five banks in the United States. Participants were asked to rate the leadership behavior of their bank branch managers as well as their own level of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Ratings of transformational leadership were obtained using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Mowday, Steers, and Porter's (1979) measures of organizational commitment were used in this study. To measure job satisfaction, participants were asked to rate their satisfaction with the leader and satisfaction with their work in general. The results of the study showed that transformational leadership has a strong and positive effect on job satisfaction and organizational commitment(Walumbwa et al., 2005b).
Another recent study (Emery & Barker, 2007) examined the effect of transformational and transactional leadership on job satisfaction of customer contact personnel in banking and food store organizations in the United States. In this study, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire was used to measure transformational leadership. The Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969) version of the Job description Index was used to measure job satisfaction. Overall, the study found that transformational leadership factors were more strongly correlated with job satisfaction than the transactional leadership factors(Emery, 2007).